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New Strategies in Architectural Education

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Reconstruction Rendering of Forum Romanum (1865)
 
by Constant Moyaux
 

The academical training of architects is of relatively recent date, and though we know architects (as a profession or qualification) from Antiquity; their education was not subject to an institutionalized formal training... It was rather a complex individual apprenticeship, a refined education and emulative process of a sophisticated nature, --including  practical building experience and a wide interdisciplinary knowledge.
 
The only remaining treatise on architecture from Antiquity: "De Architectura" gives a quite comprehensive description of the architect; this ideal profile of the architect, of his responsibilities, tasks, skills, knowledge and education are astonishingly similar to contemporary ideals of a wholesome humanistic, scientific, technical, and artistic professional competence, both in theory and practice.     

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Carolingian Manuscript of  Vitruvius's "De Architettura" 

The Antique architectus, no lesser than the Renaissance or Baroque architects were very widely trained, knowledgeable and universal professionals, with an operational expertise going from all available scientific knowledge and applications, building and military arts, civil engineering, philosophy and politics, as well as a thourough theoretical and practical competence in the crafts and skills required to produce buildings and cities, monuments and art works, but also mechanic devices and ingeneering infrastructures at all scales. It can be said that throughout the history of the architectural profession, the architect was a specialist of multi-disciplinary knowledge, and that he was both an analyst and synthesizer of complex building tasks,  responsible for the hardware, software and logistics, and the interactive  processing of design and construction.       

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View of Acropolis, Athens (5th Century B.C.) 
by  Ictinus and Mnesicles
 
(Photo by Mary Ann Sullivan)

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Residence of Hazinedaroglu, Unye
by Jules Laurens (1825-1901)

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Beaux-Arts Perspective Pencil  Study 
by Paul Philippe Cret

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The World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago (1893)

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Aerial View of Bauhaus at Dessau
by Walter Gropius
 
(Photo by R. Petschow)

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Computerized Image of Bauhaus, Dessau

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Cleveland Union Station (1915-1917)
by Graham, Anderson, Probst and White
 
(Gerald Adams Collection)

"Academic training places emphasis on the study of compositional theory and traditional principles of formal design, as the most important aspect of the architect's training....Professors are supposedly acquainted with the 'best' design principles as exemplified in great buildings or architectural books of the past, especially those of the classical tradition."
 
Donald Drew Egbert

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Beaux-Arts Life Drawing  Studio

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Metal Workshop at the Bauhaus (Dessau)

"The Bauhaus wants to educate architects, painters and sculptors of all sorts to become qualified craftsmen or independent creative artists. It also aspires to establish a study group of leading artists who will be able to design buildings in their entirety - from rough brickwork to completion, including embellishments and furnishings that reflect a similar spirit and unity."
 
 

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Studio Meeting of Second Year's Students
New School of Viseu

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Cathedral, by Lyonel Feininger (1919)
Wood-Cut for the Bauhaus Manifesto

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The Bauhaus in Dessau
by Alfred Gropius

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Computerized Bauhaus Image

"Let us together devise and create a new form of building for the future, that will be everything in one: architecture and sculpture and painting,..."
 
Walter Gropius

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"Szene auf der Treppe"
by Oskar Schlemmer

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Walter Gropius

"Let us create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions that raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist. Together let us conceive and create the new building of the future..."
 
Bauhaus Manifesto 1919
 
Walter Gropius

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Arch and Tower
by Lyonel Feininger

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Antique Aquaduct
by Jules Laurens (1825-1901)

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Bauhaus Architecture, Tel-Aviv

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Danish Bauhaus Poster (1929)

"The Bauhaus strives to reunite arts and crafts - sculpture, painting, applied art, and handicrafts - as the permanent elements of a new architecture."
 
Walter Gropius

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Forum of Conimbriga, Portugal
Viseu Students' Study Tour

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Watercolour Class
New School of Viseu

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Model Building
New School of Viseu


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